A Word On Video Accessibility
Like websites and digital files, videos have accessibility practices that should be followed to meet certain standards and increase overall viewership. Audio descriptions, synchronized captions and transcripts are just a few of the practices used to ensure accessible videos for all.
Why video accessibility is important
From a legal point of view, laws such as the Americans with Disabilities Act and the 21st Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act set guidelines that determine whether a video is accessible or not. Violations of these laws or similar laws can lead to legal action against the producer of the video.
The creation of accessible videos can be extremely beneficial from a financial point of view. The World Health Organization estimates that about 15%, or about a billion people worldwide, live with some form of disability. The creation of inaccessible videos makes it impossible for people with disabilities to view and interact with these content. This means that a company with inaccessible content misses its business, attention and loyalty.
As shown later in this article, many accessible features are quickly adopted and used by the wider population. One example of this phenomenon is the curb cut. Curb cuts were initially introduced to help wheelchair users transition from a sidewalk to the street, but anyone pushing a stroller or a grocery cart can attest to how beneficial they can be.
Audio descriptions (AD) are narrations that describe visual content on screen. Videos often contain content that is either not spoken aloud or readily apparent through context clues in the original recording. Audio descriptions can improve the experience of audio first learners, people with visual impairments and people with learning disabilities.
Consider following these steps to create efficient audio descriptions:
Take note of any gaps in audio and strictly visual content depicted onscreen.
- Create a script featuring concise explanations of the visual content.
- Record someone reading the script in a clear, and neutral voice.
- Add the narration recording to the video file as a new track. Adjusting additional audio tracks in the file may be recommended.
It’s important to be mindful that the narration does not interfere too much with the video’s native dialogue or audio content. Too much interference may lead to greater confusion on the viewer’s part.
Synchronized captions are onscreen lines of text that communicate dialogue and other pertinent audible information within the video. Synchronized captions are extremely helpful for individuals who are deaf, individuals with attention deficits, or people who learn best through reading.
There are many automated captioning services available including: Kaltura and Youtube’s captioning functions. Make sure to double-check automated captions for any errors or confusing language. Many automated services give developers the option to manually create their captions or correct any mistakes.
Many times the terms captions and subtitles are used interchangeably. Though they are both very beneficial for a large number of viewers, it’s important to distinguish between the two. Subtitle’s are primarily used by individuals who do not know the language spoken in the video, therefore only the video dialogue and narrations are depicted onscreen. Captions on the other hand present all spoken content, and other audible content that provides greater context to the video.
A transcript is a text-based document that details everything said in the video. Additionally, a descriptive transcript features all the video dialogue, and descriptions to add greater context. Transcripts may be used by individuals who are deaf; individuals who are blind; and individuals with learning disabilities. Additionally, transcripts are one of the most important accessibility features for individuals who are deaf and blind. People who are deaf and blind can read transcripts on a braille display connected to a computer running certain assistive technology which converts the transcript to digital Braille.
Many times, video developers will work with third-party vendors to create their transcripts. In some instances, captions can provide much of the text that goes into a transcript. Developers need to have appropriate software on hand in order to convert between file types, however.
When developing accessible videos, consider the following to further increase accessibility:
- Video audio: Sometimes the conflicting sounds of conversations, background music, or other audio within the video could be distracting to certain viewers.
- Flashing content: Consider avoiding flashing content or other stimuli that may trigger seizures or distractions.
- Avoid nested video players: Many embedded video players are not compatible with assistive software. Consider linking videos directly to hosting sites such as Youtube or Vimeo. Many third-party hosting sites are specifically optimized for assistive technology.
- Color Contrast: When creating videos consider the color contrast, or difference in luminosities of different colors onscreen. Colors or text that are too close together or otherwise indistinguishable may negatively impact your viewers experience.